Parallels between Rome, U.S. eerie

Many years before there was the United States of America, there was a republic called Rome. Actually, I never realized that “Ancient Rome” as we’ve come to know it existed in three phases that spanned the course of almost a thousand years.

It was founded sometime between 758 and 728 B.C. and existed as a monarchy for over two centuries. It then became a democratic republic, which lasted for 460 years, and finally transitioned to an empire for the final 200 or so years.

The Roman “constitution,” known as the Twelve Tables, was completed in 449 B.C. with an emphasis on individual liberty. The legislation would come from an elected body of officials, also known as the Senate.

Under this new system of government, Rome flourished as a fledgling, agrarian republic where citizens were able to vote, hold public office, engage in trade and commerce and own property.

Although Roman citizenship, or civitas, was limited to adult males, it was incredibly revolutionary at the time and, therefore, became a source of great pride for the Romans. It meant you were free.

Life was pretty good for a few centuries. Rome grew and prospered. The Romans built roads, bridges, aqueducts, buildings, apartments, stadiums and had the most powerful military in the world. And we all know it wasn’t built in a day.

The Roman republic even had a booming financial sector, with early forms of futures and equities markets. But in 49 B.C., the party finally came to an end as Julius Caesar stood at the bank of a small river in northern Italy known as the Rubicon.

Roman law stated that no general could cross the Rubicon and enter Italy with a standing army. If Caesar crossed, he would be declared an “enemy of the state,” plunge Rome into a civil war and turn the once shining democratic republic into an empire and himself into emperor.

The Senate was terrified of such an outcome. Even Caesar, himself, hesitated. But he was too ambitious to turn around and give up all that he had worked to achieve. He wanted power, even if it meant ending the republic.

He marched forward and, in his own words, the “die was cast.” He had crossed the point of no return and became emperor of Rome.

Brutus and Cassius did eventually assassinate Caesar in an attempt to restore the republic, but it was too late. By then, the problems were greater than one man and had been developing under the surface for many years. In fact, many Roman citizens were happy to have Caesar take the reins as dictator of Rome to get things under control.

I guess Sallust was right when he said, “Only a few prefer liberty — the majority seek nothing more than fair masters.”

So, what exactly led to the moment at the Rubicon? Why did Rome fall?

In the middle of the second century B.C., two brothers with great political ambition came to power. The Gracci brothers emerged from the Populares Party. They understood that they could gain enormous amounts of political power by making grand promises and using propaganda and charisma to woo the Roman citizens.

They promised grain at prices below market and, eventually, for free. They promised to redistribute land, and they put into place a sweeping “New Deal” like social reforms, which increased the welfare state. Essentially, you name it, they probably promised it.

As a result of these progressive reforms, farmers rushed to live in the cities for their free grain and slaves were freed in order to qualify for the dole.

It didn’t help that there was also lots of money floating around the Roman economy from the conquests abroad. Since money was cheap and interest rates were kept very low (and, at one point, even forbidden), individual Roman citizens racked up considerable amounts of debt.

The publicans were also in the money lending business but eventually cracked down on borrowers so they could invest their money into new markets opening up in Asia. This led to a huge credit crisis in 88 B.C.

The economy continued to crumble as debt increased and more and more hands grasped at the treasury. By the time Caesar came along, more than 300,000 Roman citizens were on the dole and an increasing number were making greater demands on the government.

In fact, more legislation was passed during the end of first century B.C. than any other time in the republic’s history. Politicians were becoming increasingly corrupt and self-interested.

By the time Rome became an empire, there were so many obligations that taxes began to rise to crippling levels and emperors began to adopt a policy of devaluing the currency. Rampant inflation ensued.

In fact, during the 200 years of the Roman Empire, the denarius (Rome’s coinage at the time) went from containing 95 percent silver to containing two-one-hundredths (0.02) percent silver. It became virtually valueless.

Roman emperors, such as Diocletian, began grasping at straws: regulating industry and trade, nationalizing businesses and fixing prices and wages. However, despite all the concerns from the more rational members of the Senate, Rome continued to collapse.

Cicero had even warned, “The budget should be balanced. Public debt should be reduced. The arrogance of officialdom should be tempered, and assistance to foreign lands should be curtailed, lest Rome becomes bankrupt.”

So there you have it, the breakdown of the Roman republic (and maybe the breakdown of the American republic) in a nutshell.

We’ve modeled our government after Rome, we looked at the writings of Roman philosophers like Cicero and Cato to create our Constitution, we got terms like “senate” and “citizen” from Latin. We even designed our nation’s capital after Roman architecture.

And, in a way, Washington, Jefferson, Adams, Franklin and others gave us the ultimate “mulligan” when they founded America.

But they also warned us of what happened to Rome and urged us not to go in the same direction.

And what did we do? Like sheep and cowards, we didn’t listen, didn’t learn from past mistakes and, eager for security and temporary quick fixes, have been voting ourselves back into bondage ever since.

Americans, wake up. We don’t want to be Rome. Let’s not forget that this shining city on a hill ultimately burned down with Nero fiddling away.

As our leaders in Washington stand at the bank of the Rubicon, ready to cross, we must remember Cassius’s wise words in “Julius Caesar” when he said, “The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars but in ourselves that we are underlings.”

David Edinger

Peachtree City, Ga.

SPQR
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the monkey never learns

If we can't learn from what happened in 1929 what's the use of comparisons with the Romans 2000 years ago?

dawn69
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The Fall of Rome

The early years of Rome that you speak of, were actually the years when Rome was under Etruscan rule - not really an empire, more like a loose confederation of individual city-states.

Caesar stood on the bank of the Rubicon in 49 b.c. and these events may have proven the pivotal moment by which all subsequent events would be effected setting into motion a chain of events that built up like a snow ball rolling down hill. However, it would not be until 460 years later, in the year 410 a.d., under the leadership of King Alaric that the Visogoths would bring the seat of Rome to her knees.

Rome, the once great and mighty empire, had been crippled by a "barbarian" tribe. Add in the constant fighting with the increasingly powerful Germanic tribes to the north, the mounting tension with the Goth tribes within, and the Huns from the East rendered Romes borders to become more and more frayed. The pressures of maintaining defenses against the myriad invading tribes that threatened them proved to be too exhausting and costly. The Western Empire could no longer hold back the hounds nipping at her ankles. Rome was not built in a day, nor did she fall in a day...she was eaten alive little by little until there was nothing left.

The Eastern Empire, however, lasted centuries longer before eventually being transformed into what we now call Byzantium.

tgarlock
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Excellent commentary . . .

. . . and a comparison I have often made mentally but never with the detailed knowledge you have shown here. I have another comment best made privately if you care to email me at tgarlock@mindspring.com

Terry Garlock

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Rome/US

Very thought provoking. In your analysis - at what point do the citizens 'change' the road to failure? What should/can they do to change direction.

Bonkers
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Garlock and Edinger

Sounds like a German law firm!

Too bad Reagan's 8 trillion and Bush's 5 trillion put us in this shape! They were the supposed leaders. They crossed the border as did Caesar also. (Russia and Iraq).

I have no sympathy or wish to learn much from the Romans---a city gone crazy. Italy itself wasn't too bad. We got a lot of good citizens from there.
I suspect the HUTAREES, TEAS, and Gingrich's bunch will come to power and solve these terrible problems.

Personally, I will be glad now that everyone will have health care and not be ashamed to beg for it.
One can now go to the emergency room for broken bones, and bleeding, not just for a temperature or are dying.
No more 'dribble down." Pay skilled workers twice as much and executives half as much. CEOs paid on ability.

Dondol
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Spoken Like a True Union Hack!

No more 'dribble down." Pay skilled workers twice as much and executives half as much. CEOs paid on ability

Bonkers
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dondol

Never belonged to a union!
I think you have misinterpreted my meaning.

By skilled worker I don't mean auto assembly, or postal clerk, or pencil pushers.

By executives I don't mean 300 different people in a company of 5000!

And by CEOs I don't mean private owners.

No intention for the government to set these wages either, they already pay unskilled workers too much.

These sort of things can be reasonably determined by industry.

Unions saved the worker in the 20s from Barons and just about destroyed the workers in the 70-80s.

A place like Michigan is an example of how mismanagement of too high wages and benefits in too little space is a death sentence.

Autos should have been made in half the states in small towns at reasonable wages and benefits.

Most of the employees, including decision responsible people, in the defense industry like Lockheed for example are overpaid.
Then there is a vast wasteland of underpaid people who hardly find it worthwhile to get to work.
Unemployment in some states pays more.

Mike King
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Bonkers

Either those acid flashbacks have returned or you are so mentally feeble that your hair hurts. I believe that I have observed earthworms with substantially more mental acumen than you demonstrate with the above post.

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